Dublin Crosses

There are 10 High Crosses in County Dublin.  They include:  Clondalkin 2 crosses, Finglas, Jamestown, Kilgobbin, Kill-of-the-Grange north cross, Kilmainham and Tully roadside cross and cross in the field.  The location of County Dublin is identified by the star on the map to the right.  

In addition there are several cross fragments located in the National Museum in Dublin.  These include:  a shaft from a base in the graveyard at Drumcliff in Co. Sligo; sandstone fragments from Clonmacnois in Co. Offaly that may be part of a pillar or cross; the head of a High Cross from Clonmacnois; a cross shaft from Banagher in Co. Offaly; the head of a cross from Ogulla in Co. Roscommon

Clondalkin

Christianity arrived in East Leinster in the 5th century.  It was not until the 7th century that an abbey was established at Clondalkin by a St. Cronan who was also known as Mocha.  He died in 630.  

Norsemen attacked the abbey in 832, 1071 and 1076.  They settled in the area and constructed a fortress called Dun Amhlaeibh after their king.  

In the present churchyard of St. John’s Church there are a font and two granite crosses that Sherlock presumed to be ancient.  (Sherlock p. 4)  The crosses are listed by Crawford but not by Harbison.  There is also a round tower nearby that may have been constructed as early as 700.

The Annals of the Four Masters lists St. Cronan Mocha as the first abbot of the abbey.  Saint Ferfugillus, is named as the first bishop, died 789 and Cathal who died in 879 is also mentioned as a bishop.  (Sherlock p. 4)

Ball, writing in 1899 tells us that “In the churchyard there is a large cross of granite without ornament, 9 feet in height, and made of a single stone; also a small one, apparently much older, and a curious font, of great size, made of rough granite.”  (Ball, p. 97)  In the photos above the larger cross is on the left and does not measure 9 feet in height.  Crawford listed its height as 6 feet.  (Crawford p. 219)  The shorter of the crosses is pictured to the right.  It also appears to be without ornament.  Both photos above are from Sherlock.  The photos below show the larger cross.  Both crosses are located behind the church.  It was necessasry to scale the wall, which was not a difficult task, in order to get into the church yard.

County Dublin, Clondalkin large cross


County Dublin, Clondalkin large cross








County Dublin, Clondalkin small crossCounty Dublin, Clondalkin small cross


The photos left and right show the smaller cross.  On this cross there is a cross carved in relief on the larger cross on one side (below right) and an equal armed cross in a circle on the other face in the center of the crossing.


Getting There:  See Road Atlas page 36 3 E.  Clondalkin is located west of the M50.  Take exit 9 onto the N7 west.  Exit right on the R113 to the northwest.  Take a right on Convent Road.  Stay left at the Y and continue on Tower Road.  The Round Tower will be obvious on your left, St. John’s Church will be on your right.  The crosses are in the churchyard behind the church.  You may have to climb over the low wall to get to them.  On the map to the right the round white circle marks the round tower.

The map detail left is cropped from the Historic Environment Viewer.




Finglas

The Site:

The Celtic abbey of Finglas is associated with Saint Canice or Cainnech, who lived from about 515/16 to about 600.  The monastery was founded about 560 and was active in from the 6th century until at least the 9th century.   Five Saints have been associated with Finglas:  St. Flann, St. Noe, St. Dubhlitir and St. Faelchu.  Dubhlitir appears to have been abbot and was succeeded by Flann who was described as a bishop, scribe and anchorite.  The end of the abbey may have come at the hands of the norsemen who destroyed it.  Afterward it drops from the records.  (Tutty, pp. 66, 67)

Finglas, along with Tallaght and Terryglass, was associated with the Celi De movement.  (Harbison, 1992, p. 330)  This movement seems to have originated in Ireland near the end of the eighth century.  (Zimmer, p. 100)  Celi De referred to those who had dedicated themselves to the service of God.

In 1649 Cromwell’s soldiers passed through the area and knocked down the great cross at Finglas, breaking it in two parts.  Tradition says that locals buried the cross to protect it from further damage.  In 1816 it was unearthed due to the interest of Rev. Robert Walsh.  It was re-erected near where it was found.  (Tutty, p. 67)

The Cross

This cross originally stood north of the village at Watery Lane but since 1806 or 1816 it has stood inside the entrance to the local graveyard.  (Harbison, 1992, p. 90; photos below Vol. 2, Figures 285-288)

Harbison groups this cross with the “South Leinster group of granite crosses” and suggests that these crosses postdate that at Moone which could be dated as early as the second quarter of the 9th century.  (Harbison, 1992, pp. 376-7)  The descriptions below are based on Harbison, 1992, p. 90)  When I visited the site, the gates of the cemetery were locked so I was only able to get a photo the east face and south side of the cross.

East Face:

A cross stands out in relief with a ring formed by two ribs that cross over the shaft and arms.  A roundel is at the center and the decoration is not discernible.  There was other sculpture on this face that is also too worn to identify.  The arms outside the ring are smaller than those inside.

South Side:

Under the ring is an S-shape, probably of animal nature.  Under the south arm is another S-shaped animal “with legs pointing forward and seen from above.”  

West Face:

Only the outline of a cross and the ring are visible.

North Side:

There is a long S-spiral on the underside of the ring and under the arm is a diamond shape design.


Getting There:  See Road Atlas page 36 3 F.  Located inside the M50.  Take M50 exit 5 to the southeast on the R135.  About 200m after you cross the R103 take a right on Wellmount.  There is a cemetery visible up the hill to the right.  The cross is just inside the gate off Wellmount..  The gates are typically locked but the caretaker lives in the last house before going up the steps to the gate.

The map to the right is cropped from the Historical Environment Viewer.



Jamestown

Jamestown is not an ancient designation.  It appeared only during the 16th century.  Aside from O’Reilly there seems to be little information about the cross there.  It is listed by Crawford who describes it as “A rude cross, 3 feet 6 inches high, with a large figure in relief on the west side, and the remains of a raised circle on the east side.”  (Crawford, p. 220)  O’Reilly suggests that the cross seems to be a “votive monument” and if it was actually dedicated to St. James it may date from the 9th century or before.  (O’Reilly, P. 254)

The site near the cross was part of an ancient cemetery.  This suggested to O’Reilly that the church of Balemochain, the vanished church of Ballyogan may have been on this site.  That could date the site to the late 6th century.  (O’Reilly, p. 258)    

Located near St. James’s Well is a “curious cross” that stands four feet high and two feet wide.  In the center of the northeast face a single circle is carved in high relief.  On the opposite face there is a rude human figure, also carved in high relief.  The head is in the center of the cross with the body occupying the shaft.  “There is no attempt to represent a neck; raised mouldings diverging from the head in rounded curves form the shoulders, and, descending some distance along the outer edges of the shaft, represent the arms which turn inwards, the hands meeting, as in the Tully figure, below the centre of the breast.”  (O’Reilly, p. 253)


Getting There:  See Road Atlas page 36 4 F.  From the M50 take exit 15 and go south on the R842.  When it intersects with the R117 take a right.  There will be a sign to the Stepaside Golf Course.  Permission will be needed to access the site as it is in the middle of the course in a woods between two holes. 

The map right is cropped from the Historic Environment Viewer.

Sources Consulted

O’Reilly, Patrick J., “The Christian Sepulchral Leacs and Free-Standing Crosses of the Dublin Half-Barony of Rathdown”, the Journal of the royal Society of antiquaries of Ireland, Fifth Series, Vol. 31, No. 3, [Fifth Series. Vol. 11] (Sep. 30, 1901), pp. 246-258.

Crawford, Henry S., “A Descriptive List of the early Irish Crosses, Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol. 37 [Vol. 17 Fifth Series] 1907.  p.220  pp. 187-239

Kilgobbin

The Site

The history of the ecclesiastical foundation at Kilgobbin is uncertain.  Some information suggests a date as late as 800 to 900.  Other evidence suggests an earlier 7th century date.

Excavation work at the site suggests a date for a probable monastic foundation as early as 600.  Most of the artifacts discovered date from 650 to 950 with a predominance toward the earlier period.  This conclusion is also supported by the series of enclosures identified and the metallurgical evidence found. (Bolger, p. 103, 107) 

The name of the site, Kilgobbin, may be of late origin (post Norman) but could also support an early date for the foundation as the name could refer to a Saint Gobban, a nephew to St. David of Wales.  (Bolger, p. 87)   However, “Local tradition associates the place-name with the mythological Goban Saor.”  (Bolger p. 87)  Goban Saor is associated with Goibniu or Gaibhne who was the smith of the Tuatha De Danann in the mythology of Ireland.  

Control of this area prior to the Scandinavian control of Dublin was in the hands of the Ui Briuin Cualann.  It then passed to the Kingdom of Dublin (9th century).  The name Technabretnach or “house of the Welshman/men” was used by Archbishop Alen to refer to what is now Kilgobbin.  John Alen (1476-1534) was Archbishop of Ireland and wrote the Liber Niger.  The name Technabretnach may well relate to an influx of Welsh settlers into the area around Dublin with the support of the Scandinavian Kingdom of Dublin.  (Bolger, p. 87)

The Crosses

There is a tall cross at Kilgobbin that is listed by Harbison.  The description below is based on his description.  Dating of the Tall Cross ranges from the 10th to the 12th century.  In addition, Ó hÉailidhe discusses a cross-head fragment found inside the church.

The Tall Cross:  This cross is made of granite and stands about 8 feet in height and was nearly 4 feet across the arms.  There are roll mouldings on the edges of the shaft and the sides are undecorated. 


East Face:  The Crucified Jesus is depicted clad in a long robe and with arms outstretched on the arms of the cross.






West Face:  (?) The Risen Christ.  The figure of Christ is similar to that on the east face but the arms are shortened.  It could represent either the Risen Christ or Christ in Glory.  (Harbison, 1992, p. 117; photo right Vol. 2, Fig. 382)






The sides of the cross have no carving.  Seen to the left is the south side and to the right the north side with the ruins of a church on the hill behind.





Cross-Head Fragment

A fragment of a cross-head was found inside the church but is no longer present there.  The date is uncertain.  The granite fragment measures 18cm by 18cm by 9cm thick.  It had a circular panel in the center and the arms appear to have been short.  “On one face the centre panel is framed by an incised line and raised border.  On the other face there is a raised border and one arc of a cross drawn with arcs in relief.”  (Ó hÉailidhe, p. 144; illustration p. 143)  The cross-head fragment has clearly been removed from the church.

Getting There:  See Road Atlas page 36 4 F.  From the M50 take exit 15 and go south on the R842.  When it intersects with the R117 take a right.  Follow the R117 past Stepaside and take the Kilgobbon Road to the right  The cross will be on your right about 200m along.  If you come to a three way roundabout you have gone too far by less than 60m.  The cross is marked by the upper black circle of the cluster, the ruins of a church are above it on the hill.

The map to the right is cropped from the Historic Environment Viewer.


Kill-of-the-Grange

The head, as shown to the right has been removed to the Office of Public Works Depot in Trim.  The base is all that remains in situ.  The shaft is a concrete addition from a time when the head was still on site.

The Church of Clonkeen was founded in the late 7th century.  On the site are the ruins of a later church (10th or 11th century) and a bullion stone.  Two stone boundary crosses were removed by the Board of Works.  The church was dedicated to Saint Fintan of Clonenagh in County Laois.  Fintan’s cult has been closely connected with Saint Brigid.  The church and the nearby secular village were jointly referred to as Clonkeen until the 16th century.  In the 12th century the Kill and the Grange (the village) were not part of the lands allocated to Anglo-Norman leaders.  However, their proximity to Dublin meant that the Anglo-Normans had strong influence there.  (Clare, pp. 17-18)   I was not able to locate the cross as pictured to the right.

Harbison describes the head of the cross as being partially formed by three fragments.  The top and one of the side arms are missing.  The fragments measure about two feet in height and two feet across.  The granite head has a ring that is perforated.  In the center of the head is a small boss in false relief.  Harbison notes the cross could be later than 1200.  (Harbison, 1992, p. 130, image Vol. 2, Fig. 434)

Getting There:  See Road Atlas page 36 4 G.  The base is located south of Dublin.  From the N11 turn east on Kill Lane (the R330)  Follow Kill Lane  to the second major intersection, the R328 and turn north.  Take the first left onto St. Fintan’s Park. 

The map above is cropped from the Historic Environment Viewer.

Kilmainham

The Site and Saint

By about the year 607 there was a monastery at what is now Kilmainham and St. Magnend or Magnen was the abbot.  The early name of the place was Kill Magnend or the church of Magnend.

In 782 the death of “Leargus Ua Fidhchain, a wise man of Cill Maighnenn.”  (Annals of the Four Masters) 

In 1013 and again in 1014 Brian Boru and his army were encamped at Kilmainham.  In 1013 he was there from August to December, but there was no major action.  In 1014 Brian was encamped at Kilmainham prior to the battle of Clontarf.  Both Brian and his son Murrough were killed in the battle and its aftermath.  Murrough is said to have been buried near the cross that stands in the present graveyard.

A little over a century and a half later, Strongbow established a priory at Kilmainham for the Knights Templars who presided there at the end of the High Cross period in 1200.

The site of the old monastery and of the priory of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem was later the royal Hospital Kilmainham.  It now houses the Irish Museum of  Modern Art. 

The Cross

The cross is carved of Granite.  The shaft that remains is just short of 10 feet in height, just over 2 feet wide and one foot thick.  It stands in a granite base.  The descriptions below are from Harbison, 1992, p. 130.

Kilmainham cross, County Dublin, Ireland, East Face


East Face:  The carving on this face of the cross is difficult to discern.  Harbison described it as follows:  “The east face has a sunken panel, the bottom of which is about 1.13m above the base.  It contains a vertical rib in relief which opens out into a spiral on either side below, and expands into a V-shape at the top.”   The photo to the left is from Harbison, 1992, vol. 2, fig. 435.



Kilmainham cross, County Dublin, Ireland, West Face


West Face:  There is a sunken panel on this face as well.  It contains an interlace that ends in “two pendants with circular ‘bosses’ at the bottom.”   The illustration to the right is from the Dublin Penny Journal, Aug. 25, 1832, p. 68.




Kilmainham cross, County Dublin, Ireland, north side and east faceKilmainham cross, County Dublin, Ireland, south side and east face


Sides:  Once again there are sunken panels but no apparent decoration.





Getting There:  See Road Atlas page 36 3 F.  The Royal Hospital, Kilmainham is located just to the south and west of Heuston Station in Dublin.  It is just south of St. John’s Road West (R148).  The cross is in a locked cemetery at the far west end of the grounds.  See the map to the right.  Entry is by special arrangement with the curators.  The map to the right is cropped from Googlemaps.com


Tully Church, (Laughanstown)

The Site

The church at Tully is pre-Norman with a 13th century chancel.  There  are two crosses on the site and three graveslabs.  The site was once known as tulach na n-Epscop or the “hill of the bishops”.  The name derives from a passage in the Martyrology of Oengus that tells of 8 bishops departing from Tully to visit St. Brigit at Kildare.  Tully has a  strong connection with Brigit while many south Dublin churches were associated with St. Kevin of Glendalough.  It has been speculated that the church was founded in the 8th century.  The photos of the two crosses below are found in Corlett and Condit.

In the pre-Norman period the church lands were “granted to Dublin’s Holy Trinity Church (Christ Church) by Citric Mac Torcaill, a member of the ruling Viking family of Dublin.”  (Corlett and Condit)

The Crosses

There are two stone high crosses at Tully.  The first is a ringed cross that stands on a high plinth.  This plinth was constructed when roadwork was done after 1860 to keep the cross at its original elevation.  The cross and base are both granite.  The cross stands about 7 feet in height.  The top of the cross has the shape of a gable roof and the carving of shingles is very clear, but there is no other decoration visible on the cross.  This cross has been dated to the 10th century. 

In the photo to the left the west face and the north side are visible.  In the photo to the right the east face and south side are visible.


The second cross stands on a tall base nearby.  It stands about 7 feet in height and one arm has broken away.  “On the west face is a weathered carved head at the intersection of the cross.  On the east face is a figure carved in relief, with its head placed at the intersection of the cross.  The figure is depicted with a long beard, but the facial features are worn away.”  (Corlett and Condit)  This figure holds a crosier and so represents a bishop.  Corbett and Condit propose that his figure may represent Lorcan Ua Tuathail (Lawrence O’Toole).  The photo to the left shows the cross in context as seen from the northeast.

In 1901 O’Reilly described this same carving as “a full-length and well-proportioned female figure” and suggested it might represent St. Brigit.  (O’Reilly, p. 249)  More recent consensus agrees with Corlett and Condit in identifying a beard on the face of the figure, making it the face of a male.

This cross has been dated to the 12th century and is not included in Harbison’s “The High Crosses of Ireland”.

The photo to the left shows the cross from the northeast.  The photo to the right shows the cross 

Getting There:   See Road Atlas page 36 4 G.  From the M50 take exit 15.  If you are going south take the road opposite the exit at the first round-about.  At the second round-about take the first exit to the left (Glenamuck  Road North.  At the first major intersection (Brighton Road) take a right and follow Brighton until it takes a sharp left turn.  After the turn, about 100 yards later take a right (Lehaunstown Road) and follow it as it winds about till you see the ringed cross on the left.  If you are going north on the M50 you will take the exit three quarters around the round-about (Glenamuck Road North) then follow the directions above.

The map to the right is cropped from the Historic Environment Viewer

National Museum Cross Fragments

Fragments of five crosses, not original to County Dublin, are to be found in the possession of the National Museum in Dublin.  During 2017 I hope to determine which of these are currently on display in the museum and to photograph those that are.

These cross fragments are listed in the National Monument Viewer under the headings, Dublin and High Cross (present location).  The text is edited slightly from the entries on that sight.  See http://webgis.archaeology.ie/historicenvironment/

Each fragment has an identification number.  All are located in the Townlasd of Dublin South City.  The descriptions follow.

DU018-181—-  This is the present location for the shaft of the high cross the base of which stands in the graveyard at Drumcliff, Co. Sligo (SL008-084008)  Compiled by Paul Walsh.

DU018-190—-  “Fragment of a possible high cross that originally came from Clonmacnoise, County Offaly (see OF005-064—-).  Described by Harbison as ‘In the National Museum in Dublin there are some fitting sandstone fragments from Clonmacnoise.  The top of the upper fragment is so damaged that it is difficult to know whether it formed part of a pillar or cross.  Together, the fragments measure about 90cm in height, and they are 35cm wide and 18cm thick.  Their edges have been damaged, and the panels are framed by a raised moulding.  There is a large tenon at the bottom, but no trace of a mortise hole on top.  Only one face is decorated suggesting that it may have originally stood against a wall.

Main Face:  Three deeply carved pelta motifs one above the other and rising from a double raised moulding below.  At each end they roll into a three-coil spiral terminating in pierced lobes.  There is a ‘drop’ appended to the centre of the pelta, which is formed of two facing trumpet-ends, above which there is a three pointed interlace.

Left Side:  A panel of interlace.

Right Side:  A vertical panel divided into three sections.  In the centre there is an interlace.  Above and below it there are two sunken crosses surrounded by a stepped raised moulding, outside which there is a further stepped moulding with a square in the outer corners’ (Harbison, 1992, vol. 1, 57).  Compiled by Caimin O’Brien.

DU018-191—-There is a cross fragment (OF009-005006-) cemented into the S end of the W wall of the graveyard at Clonmacnoise, Co. Offaly (OF990-005009) and this piece appears to have come from the shaft of a high cross:  it has interlace decoration on its visible side.  The missing cross head described below and the possible fragment of the shaft may belong to the same cross.  This cross-head is now housed in Dublin, in the National Museum of Ireland (IA File, IA/29/1988).

In 1974 the head of a high cross was removed from the monastery at Durrow and was described by Harbison as ‘A cross-head of sandstone stood for centuries on top of the gable of the now disused Protestant church to the east of the main cross.  It fell to the ground in the late 1950s, after which it was placed on a base just south of the church.  In 1974 it was, apparently, removed to Durrow Abbey nearby, in the grounds of which the old monastic site lies.  The cross-head is 43cm high, 68cm across the arms, and the lower part of the shaft has a maximum width of about 20cm.  The arms expand markedly at the terminals, and it seems unlikely that the cross originally had a ring.  The ends of the arms are probably not decorated.

East Face:  (?) David as Shepherd.  A figure stands with a crook in its left hand, and there may be a sheep with turned-back head to the right.  Above the figure’s head there is what is probably an angel, on the analogy of panel S 3 of the Cross of the Scriptures at Clonmacnois.  The figure is most likely to represent David as Shepherd, the presence of David in such a position at the centre of the cross-head being rendered quite likely in view of the David interpretation suggested here for the scene at the centre of head of the Tall Cross at Monasterboice.  The arms are decorated with interlace.

West Face:  The Crucifixion.  Christ is shown in a tight-fitting garment, stretching his arms out at right angles.  Stephaton and Longinus are indicated as busts beneath Christ’s arms, though their attributes are not shown.  At the end of the arms there is a whirl from which serpent headed animals emerge.  Above Christ’s head, a bird flies upwards to the left.  (Harbison, 1992, vol. 1, 82-3)  Compiled by Caimin O’Brien, Paul Walsh

DU018-205—-.  This is the present location of the high cross from Kylebeg or Banagher, Co. Offaly (OF021-003004-).  Described by Harbison as A cross shaft of sandstone which originally stood at Banagher, Co. Offaly, was removed by Cooke around the middle of the last century (1800’s).  After his death, it was moved to Clonmacnois around 1870, and to the National Museum in Dublin in 1929, where it is now on display with the inventory number 1929:1497.  It is 1.47m tall, and its tapering faces and sides have maximum dimensions of 40cm and 19cm respectively.  All the corners have small roll moulding, and the panels which are all of different sizes are also framed by similar moulding.  Damage to the two top side panels was probably caused by a secondary attempt to add a ring.  A shallow mortise-hole on top is probably secondary also.

Face 1 - Panel 1:  Emerging from a single-strand interlace between two animals with backward-turning heads at the bottom of the panel is a two-strand interlace.  The top of this interlace coalesces with two figures in profile.  The right hand of the left-hand figure grasps the other’s left wrist, and their respective other hands seem to touch.  The two figures — with their spiky noses - have hair which forms an interlace between their heads.

Panel 2:  A crouching lion with protruding tongue and with its tail between its legs.  There is a three-point interlace in the upper left hand corner and another very irregular, interlace above the lion’s back.

Panel 3:  A two-strand interlace.

Side 1 - Panel 1:  Two animals one above the other, enmeshed in a narrow band of interlace.  The tail of the upper animal terminates in a triangular shape in the centre of the panel.

Panel 2:  A single-strand interlace.

Panel 3:  Interlinking C-shaped spirals forming pelta-shapes, terminating in two outward turning spirals at the top.

Panel 4:  A damaged coiled animal (head missing) with a fish-like tail.

Face 2 - Panel 1:  A human interlace with the legs intertwined at the centre and the bodies radiating outwards to the corners.  A narrow ribbon winds its way around the arms of the four human figures.

Panel 2:  A deer with its front right leg caught in a rectangular trap.

Panel 3:  A horseman, with hair flat on top and falling to a curl behind, holds a crozier in his right hand which emerges from the folds of his cape-like garment.  He has no stirrups, and his legs are placed well forward as the horse prances proudly to the right.  Above is a partially-damaged prancing lion with protruding tongue, also facing towards the right.  Its tail rises behind, and terminates in two leaf-like shapes.

Side 2 - Panel 1:  A tall panel bearing interlace of various kinds which terminate in animal-heads with ropes-like necks and ear-lappets, and with their mouths biting the interlace.

Panel 2:  Very similar to panel 3 on side 1.

Panel 3:  Interlace terminating below in animal-heads which bit the interlace.  A broad groove at the top suggests that a ring may have been inserted secondarily to support the arms of a cross (Harbison, 1992, vol. 1, 25-26)  Compiled by Caimin O’Brien

DU018-210—:  The holy well at Ogulla, Co. Roscommon (RO022-106003-) is overlooked by a large tree where the head of a high cross (RO022-106005-; Harbison 1992, vol. 1, 185), now in NMI was kept.  It consists of a crux (dims. c 0.8m x 0.8m; T 0.3m) with a large boss on one face and a plainly carved head on the other.  Compiled by Michael Moore.

Balsitric ME006-033001-  Situated in a low-lying position on a gently undulating landscape.  The circular head of a cross (H 0.42m; Wth 0.22m) with a solid ring (diam. 0.28m; T 7.5cm) and a crucifixion on one side, which has been found in ploughing in a field adjoining a field known as “the Church field” was acquired by the National Museum of Ireland in 1978.  It was found within the ecclesiastical enclosure.  Compiled by Michael Moore.

Donaghmore cross-head ME025-015004-  The damaged head of a sandstone high cross (H 0.63m; original With c. 0.45m), now in the National Museum of Ireland, is almost certainly that described by Wilde (1857, 1, 141-2) as being from Donaghmore.  It has roll mouldings, the shaft was divided into panels, and interlace is confined to a knot at the crux and on the ring (Harbison 1992, 185)

Killary, County Meath, inventory nos. 1987:156-157; 1987 156, 1987 157.

Banager, County Offaly fragment.

Inis Cealtra, County Clare, Head fragment

Monasterboice, County Louth shaft fragment.

Monasterboice, County Louth head fragment

Mona Incha, County Tipperary, fragment

Durrow, County Offaly, small cross-head

Resources Consulted

Ball, F. Elrington, “Descriptive Sketch of Clondalkin, Tallaght, and Other Places in West County Dublin”, The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Fifth Series, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Jun. 30, 1899), pp. 93-108

Clare, Liam, “The Kill and the Grange of Clonkeen:  Two Early Settlements in South County Dublin”, Dublin Historical Record, Vol. 58, No. 1 (Spring, 2005), pp. 17-30.

“Clondalkin Tower”, The Dublin Penny Journal, Vol. 2, No. 62 (Sep. 7, 1833), pp. 73-74

Clondalkin Tour:  http://homepage.eircom.net/~clondalkintour/history.htm

Corlett, Christiaan and Condit Emer, Heritage Guide No. 61:  Tully church, Laughanstown, Co. Dublin, Archaeology Ireland, June 2013.

Corlett, Christiaan, http://www.christiaancorlett.com/blog/4564514201/Tully-Church-near-Cabinteely-south-county-Dublin/5971049.

Crawford, Henry S., “A Descriptive List of the Early Irish Crosses”, The Journal of the royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Fifth Series, No. 2 (June. 30, 1907), pp. 187-239.

Harbison, Peter; "The High Crosses of Ireland:  An Iconographical and Photographic Survey", Dr. Rudolf Habelt GMBH, Bonn, 1992.  Volume 1:  Text, Volume 2:  Photographic Survey; Volume 3:  Illustrations of Comparative Iconography.

Historic Environment Viewer:  http://webgis.archaeology.ie/historicenvironment/

O’Reilly, Patrick J., “The Christian Sepulchral Leacs and Free-Standing Crosses of the Dublin Half-Barony of Rathdown”, The journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Fifth Series, No. 3, September 30, 1901, pp. 246-258.

Sherlock, Canon, “Clondalkin”, Journal of the Co. Kildare Archaeological Society and Surrounding Districts, Vol. V. 1906-1908, Dublin, 1908, pp. 3-11.

South Dublin County History:  Our Villages  http://www.southdublinhistory.ie/content.aspx?area=Clondalkin&type=history

Tutty, Michael J., “Finglas”, Dublin Historical Record, Vol. 26, No. 2 (Mar. 1973), pp. 66-73.

Zimmer, Heinrich, The Celtic Church in Britain and Ireland, Translated by A. Meyer, London, 1902.  http://www.thechristianidentityforum.net/downloads/Celtic-Church.pdf



 Barney McLaughlin 2012