Scripture Crosses

Introduction

The “Scripture Crosses” are a sub-group of the Irish High Crosses.  This essay introduces the Scripture Crosses and also serves as an introduction to the following two essays on the images from the Hebrew Scriptures, or Old Testament and the Christian Scriptures, or New Testament.  The information below is based exclusively on the work of Dr. Peter Harbison in his epic tome The High Crosses of Ireland. 

Harbison, Peter; The High Crosses of Ireland:  An Iconographical and Photographic Survey, Dr. Rudolf Habelt GMBH, Bonn, 1992.  Volume 1:  Text, Volume 2:  Photographic Survey; Volume 3:  Illustrations of Comparative Iconography.

Tall Cross, Monasterboice, County Louth, Ireland, Three Children in the Fiery Furnace

The photo to the right is a representation of the Three Children in the Fiery Furnace, on the Tall Cross at Monasterboice in County Louth. It depicts a text from the Hebrew scriptures.

Scripture Cross Defined

The term “Scripture Cross” has been used to refer to Irish High Crosses that contain biblical images.  The term does not seem anywhere to be clearly defined beyond this.  For the purposes of this article, a "Scripture Cross" is one that depicts at least one biblical image.  A total of 85 crosses fit into this category.  That’s 85 out of a total of 235 High Crosses identified by Peter Harbison.  So just over one in three of the Irish High Crosses has one or more biblical images.

Identified below are the 21 High Crosses that contain 7 or more biblical images.  The other 64 crosses with at least 1 biblical image all contain 5 or fewer images.  There is only one biblical image on 34 of the the 85 “scripture crosses".  There are 2 images on 14 crosses; 3 on 10 crosses, 4 on 3 crosses and 5 on 3 crosses.  

The photo to the left represents the Second Mocking of Christ on the Cross of Muiredach at Monasterboice in County Louth.  It represents a text from the Christian scriptures.

Cross of Muiredach, Monasterboice, County Louth, Ireland, Second Mocking of Christ

The Irish High Crosses were the product of Christian communities in Ireland between the late 8th century and about 1200 C.E.  Carved panels on some of these crosses contain images from the Hebrew and Christian scriptures.  These are the crosses considered here.  

For the Early Christian community the Hebrew scriptures were their only scriptures.  Therefore, as early Christians sought to understand who Jesus was and what his death and resurrection meant, they turned to the Hebrew scriptures searching for answers.  In many of the stories of the Hebrew bible they found references to God’s salvation and in some they found what they interpreted as pre-figurations of Christ’s death and resurrection.  It is, therefore, to be expected that where figural scenes were employed by those who planned and carved these crosses, some of them would reflect the content of the Hebrew scriptures, commonly known as the Old Testament.  In addition, Christian writings, which developed between about 50 and 100 CE and began to be recognized as scripture over the next 200-300 years, became central to the faith.  Images from these scriptures would also be expected to appear on the crosses.  In fact, as noted above, we find both types of images on some of the Irish High Crosses.  Hebrew scripture images appear on 47 of these crosses.  Christian scripture images appear on 74 crosses.

It should be noted that the 235 crosses identified by Harbison include in-tact crosses, damaged or broken crosses and cross fragments.  We know that some crosses have been lost to time and destruction.  This means we have almost certainly lost some figural images, even on the crosses we still have.  Beside this there are images on some of the crosses that cannot be identified, even tentatively, due to deterioration.  Adding to the difficulty, some scholars have made different identifications of some of the Christian scripture figural images than those made by Harbison.   Inferences can only be drawn form the crosses we have.

Top Scripture Crosses

Below are the 21 crosses with the largest number of biblical images.  They contain a total of 260 biblical images.  Of these, 121 represent scenes from the Hebrew scriptures and 139 represent scenes from the Christian scriptures.  

  1. Monasterboice, Tall Cross                11 Hebrew/ 14 Christian                25 images
  2. Kells, Market Cross                          12 Hebrew/ 9 Christian                  21 images
  3. Arboe Cross                                       7 Hebrew/ 12 Christian                19 images
  4. Durrow Cross                                     6 Hebrew/ 11 Christian                17 images
  5. Monasterboice, Muiredach’s Cross    4 Hebrew/ 12 Christian                16 images
  6. Armagh Cross                                    7 Hebrew/ 9 Christian                  16 images
  7. Clonmacnois, Scripture Cross           4 Hebrew/ 11 Christian                 15 images
  8. Castledermot, South Cross               8 Hebrew/ 5 Christian                   13 images
  9. Kells, Broken Cross                           6 Hebrew/ 6 Christian                   12 images
  10. Drumcliff Cross                                  3 Hebrew/ 8 Christian                   11 images
  11. Donaghmore/Tyrone Cross               3 Hebrew/ 8 Christian                   11 images
  12. Clones Cross                                     6 Hebrew/ 4 Christian                   10 images
  13. Killary Cross                                      6 Hebrew/ 4 Christian                   10 images
  14. Moone Cross                                     4 Hebrew/ 5 Christian                    9 images
  15. Donaghmore/Down Cross                 7 Hebrew/ 2 Christian                    9 images
  16. Kells, Patrick and Columba Cross     7 Hebrew/ 2 Christian                    9 images
  17. Camus Cross                                     4 Hebrew/ 4 Christian                    8 images
  18. Castledermot North Cross                 5 Hebrew/ 3 Christian                    8 images
  19. Killamery Cross                                 3 Hebrew/ 4 Christian                    7 images
  20. Graiguenamanagh, North Cross       4 Hebrew/  3 Christian                   7 images
  21. Ullard Cross                                      4 Hebrew/ 3 Christian                    7 images

The images that appear on these 21 crosses are listed below along with photos of each cross.  They are listed according to the side of the cross they appear on:  E, S, W, N; and their positon on the cross.  The panels on the shaft of the crosses are identified by number, beginning at the bottom of the shaft and working up.  The listing below identifies only the scripture images.  There are other panels that contain other images and decoration.  The crosses are listed as they appear above.

Note that in a few cases Harbison has listed two possible interpretations of the same scene.  In other cases a (?) indicates his identification is not definitive.

1.  Monasterboice, Tall Cross, 12 Hebrew scripture images, 14 Christian scripture images.

East Face:      Shaft;  E 1, David Slays the Lion; E 2, The Sacrifice of Isaac; E 3, Moses Smites Water from the Rock; E 4 left, David with the Head of Goliath; E 4 right, Samuel Anoints David; E 5, Samson Rends the Pillars of the House; E 6, Elijah Ascends to Heaven.  Head;  Lower, The Three Children in the Fiery Furnace; Center, (?) David Acclaimed King of Israel; Upper, Christ Walks upon the Water; Top, (?) The Repentance of Manasseh

South Side:  Shaft:  S 3, (?) Zacharias, Elizabeth and the Infant John the Baptist; S 5, The Naming of John the Baptist

West Face:  Shaft;  W 1, Christ in the Tomb; W 2, The Baptism of Christ; W 3, The Three Holy Women at the Tomb; W 4, Traditio Clavium; W 5, (?)The Raised Christ; W 6, (?)The Soldiers Casting Lots for Christ’s Garments.  Head:  Center, The Crucifixion; Arm Constrictions, The Denial of Peter; North Arm, The First Mocking of Christ; South Arm, The Kiss of Judas; Upper, Peter Draws His Sword to Cut off the Ear of Malchus; Top, )?) Pilate Washes His Hands

North Side:  Shaft:  N 2, David as King; N 4, Daniel in the Lion’s Den 

Photo below left, East Face; below right, West Face.

Tall Cross, Monasterboice, County Louth, Ireland, West FaceTall Cross, Monasterboice, County Louth, Ireland, east face

                         












2.  Kells, Market Cross:  12 Hebrew scripture images; 9 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 1, )?)The Kiss of Judas; E 2, (?) Peter Cuts the Ear off Malchus; E 3, (?) The Mocking or Flagellation of Christ

South Side:  Shaft;  S 1, Christ in the Tomb; S 2, (?) David Acclaimed King of Israel; S 3 left, Adam and Eve Knowing their Nakedness; S 3 right, Cain Slays Abel.  Head:  Lower, David Playing his Lyre; Center, Daniel in the Lion’s Den; Upper, (?) Adam and Eve at Labor; West Arm, The Sacrifice of Isaac

West Face:  Shaft:  W 2, (?) The Judgment of Solomon; W 3, (?) Samuel Anoints David; W 4, The Pillar of Fire.      Head:  End of Arm, David Slays the Lion; West Arm, The Sacrifice of Isaac

North Side:  Shaft:  N 2, Suffer Little Children to Come Unto Me; N 3, The Healing of the Centurion’s Servant; N 4, The Multiplication of the Laves and Fishes.  Head:  Center, The Crucifixion; Arm Constrictions, The Denial of Peter

Photos below:  Market Cross at Kells in County Meath.  Left is the east face; right is the west face.

Market Cross, Kells, County Meath, Ireland, West FaceMarket Cross, Kells, County Meath, Ireland, East Face













3.  Arboe Cross:  7 Hebrew scripture images; 12 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 1, Adam and Eve Knowing their Nakedness; E 2, The Sacrifice of Isaac; E 3, Daniel in the Lion’s Den; E 4, The Three Children in the Fiery Furnace.  Head:  E 6, The Second Coming of Christ; Center, The Last Judgment

South Side:  Shaft:  S 1, Cain Slays Abel; S 2, David Slays the Lion; S 3, David Encounters/Smites Goliath

West Face:  Shaft:  W 1, The Adoration of the Magi; W 2, The Marriage Feast of Cana; W 3, The Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes; W 4, The Entry of Christ into Jerusalem.  Head:  W 6, The Mocking or Flagellation of Christ; Center, The Crucifixion

North Side:  Shaft:  N 1, The Baptism of Christ; N 2, Christ Before the Doctors; N 3, The Massacre of the Innocents; N 4, The Annunciation to the Shepherds

Photos below:  Arboe Cross, County Tyrone.  Left side, East Face and Right side, West Face.

Arboe Cross, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland, West Face

Arboe Cross, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland, East Face














4.  Durrow Cross:  6 Hebrew scripture images; 11 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 1, The Raised Christ; E 3, The Sacrifice of Isaac.  Head:  Center, )?) The Last Judgment; South Arm, David Playing the Lyre; North Arm, David Slays the Lion

South Side:  Shaft:  S 1, Eve Gives the Apple to Adam; S 2, Cain Slays Abel; S 3, David as King

West Face:  Shaft:  W 1, Christ in the Tomb; W 2, The Mocking or Flagellation of Christ; W 3, The Soldiers Casting Lots for Christ’s Garments.  Head:  Center, The Crucifixion; North Arm, The Denial of Peter; South Arm, Pilate Washes His Hands; Top, Traditio Clavium

North Side:  Shaft:  N 1, (?) Saint John the Baptist Embracing/Recognising Christ; N 3, Zacharias and Elizabeth with the Infant John the Baptist




Photos:  Durrow Cross, County Offaly.  Left:  East Face; Right:  West Face.  Images from Harbison, 1992, volume II, figures 247 and 254.








5.  Monasterboice, Muiredach’s Cross:  4 Hebrew scripture images; 12 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 1 left, Eve Gives the Apple to Adam; E 1 right, Cain Slays Abel; E 2, David Departs from Saul and Encounters/Smites Goliath; E 3, Moses Smites Water for the Rock; E 4, The Adoration of the Magi.  Head:  Center, The Last Judgment; Upper, Majestas Domini

South Side:  Head:  End of Arm, Pilate Washes His Hands

West Face:  Shaft:  W 1, The Second Mocking of Christ/Ecce Rex Iudaeorum; W 2, The Raised Christ; W 3, Traditio Clavium.  Head:  Center, The Crucifixion; North Arm, (?) Denial of Peter; South Arm, The Resurrection; Top, The Ascension

North Side:  Head:  End of Arm, The Mocking or Flagellation of Christ

Cross of Muiredach, Monasterboice, County Louth, Ireland, East FaceCross of Muiredach, Monasterboice, County Louth, Ireland, West Face


Photos:  Cross of Muiredach, Monasterboice, County Louth.  Left:  East face; Right: West face










6.  Armagh, Composite Cross:  7 Hebrew scripture images, 9 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 1, Adam and Eve Knowing Their Nakedness; E 2, Noah’s Ark; E 3, The Sacrifice of Isaac; E 4, (?) Daniel in the Lions’ Den; E 5, (?) Christ Before the Doctors; E 6, (?) The Baptism of Christ; Head; Center, The Crucifixion

South Side:  Shaft:  S 1, Cain Slays Abel; S 2, David Encounters/Smites Goliath; S 3, David Slays the Lion

West Face:  Shaft:  W 1, The Annunciation to the Shepherds; W 2, The Adoration of the Magi; W 3, The Baptism of Christ; W 4, (?) The Marriage Feast of Cana; W 5, (?) The Second Coming of Christ; Head, Center, The Last Judgment

North Side:  Shaft:  N 1, The Three Children in the Fiery Furnace

Photo below Composite Cross at Armagh, County Armagh.  From left to right:  East Face, South Side and West Face.  Images from Harbison, 1992, volume II, figures 45-47.

7.  Clonmacnois, Scripture Cross:  4 Hebrew scripture images; 11 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 1, (?) Joseph Interprets the Dream of Pharaoh’s Butler; E 2, (?) The Chief Butler Gives the Cup into Pharaoh’s Hand; E 3, Traditio Clavium.  Head:  Center, The Last Judgment; Top, Majestas Domini

South Side:  Base:  Upper Panel:  The Kiss of Judas.  Shaft:  S 2, David Playing His Lyre; S 3, (?) David as Shepherd

West Face:  Base:  Lower Left, Christ Entering Jerusalem; Lower Center, (?) The Resurrection; Lower Right; The Holy Women at the Tomb; Upper Panel, The Raised Christ/Mission to the Apostles.  Shaft:  W 1, Christ in the Tomb; W 2, The Mocking or Flagellation of Christ; W 3, The Soliders Casting Lots for Christ’s Seamless Garment.  Head:  Center, The Crucifixion

North Side:  None

Photos below:  Scripture Cross at Clonmacnois, County Offaly.  Right:  East Face; Left:  West Face.

Cross of the Scriptures, Clonmacnois, County Offaly, Ireland, West Face

Cross of the Scriptures, Clonmacnois, County Offaly, Ireland, East Face













8.  Castledermot,  South Cross:  8 Hebrew scripture images; 5 Christian scripture images

East Face:  None

South Side:  Base:  The Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes.  Shaft:  The Apostles (in 6 panels showing two figures each)

West Face:  Shaft:  W 1, Daniel in the Lions’ Den; W 3, Eve Gives the Apple to Adam.  Head:  Center, The Crucifixion; North Arm, David Playing His Harp; South Arm, The Sacrifice of Isaac; Top 2, The Mocking or Flagellation of Christ

North Side:  Base:  (?) The Kiss of Judas.  Shaft:  N 1, (?) David; N 2, David Slays Goliath; N 3, David Encounters/Smites Goliath; N 4, (?) David Arms Himself

South Cross, Castledermot, County Kildare, Ireland, East Face

South Cross, Castledermot, County Kildare, Ireland, West Face


Photos:  South Cross at Castledermot, County Kildare.  

Left:  West Face; 

Right:  East Face.







9.  Kells, Broken Cross:  6 Hebrew scripture images; 6 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 1, The Baptism of Christ; E 2, The Marriage Feast of Cana; E 3 left, (?) The Raising of Lazarus or Christ Heals the Lame Man at the Pool of Bethesda; E 3 right, (?) Jesus Delivers the Adulteress or With the Woman of Samaria at the Well; E 4, The Washing of the Child Jesus; E 5, (?) The Trhee Wise Men Questioning Herod; E 6, The Entry of Christ into Jerusalem

South Side:  None

West Face:  Shaft:  W 1, Adam and Eve Knowing Their Nakedness; W 2, Noah’s Ark; W 3, Moses Turns the Waters of Egypt into Blood; W 4, The Pillar of Fire; W 5, The Passage of the israelites Through the Red Sea

North Side:  None

Broken Cross, Kells, County Meath, Ireland, East Face

Broken Cross, Kells, County Meath, Ireland, West Face


Photos:  Broken Cross at Kells, County Meath.

Left:  West Face

Right:  East Face







10.  Drumcliff Cross:  3 Hebrew Scripture images, 8 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 2, Adam and Eve (Eve Eats the Apple); E 4, David Slays Goliath; E 5, Daniel in the Lions’ Den.  Head:  Center, (?) The Second Coming of Christ or the Last Judgment

South Side:  Head:  End of Arm, The Virgin and Child

West Face:  Shaft:  W 2, (?) The Naming of John, The presentation of John the Baptist in the Temple; W 4, The Second Mocking of Christ; W 5, (?) The Return from Egypt or Zacharias, Elisabeth and John the Baptist.      Head:  Center, The Crucifixion, Arms left and right, (?) The Theives

North Side:  None 

Drumcliff Cross, County Sligo, Ireland, East FaceDrumcliff Cross, County Sligo, Ireland, West Face




Photos:  Drumcliff Cross, County Sligo.

Left:  East Face

Right:  West Face







11.  Donaghmore/Tyrone Cross:  3 Hebrew scripture images; 8 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 1, The Annunciation to the Shepherds; E 2, The Adoration of the Magi; E 3, The Baptism of Christ; E 4, The Marriage Feast of Cana; E 5, (?) The Entry of Christ into Jerusalem; E 7, The Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes; E 8, The Mocking or Flagellation of Christ.  Head:  Center, The Crucifixion

South Side:  None

West Face:  Shaft:  W 1, Adam and Eve Knowing Their Nakedness; W 2, Cain Slays Abel; W 3, The Sacrifice of Isaac

North Side:  None

Donaghmore Cross, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland, East Face



Photos:  Donaghmore Cross, County Tyrone

Left:  East Face 

Right:  West Face drawing on sign post at site.




12. Clones  Cross:  6 Hebrew scripture images; 4 Christian scripture images

South-east Face:  Shaft:  SE1, Adam and Eve Knowing Their Nakedness; SE 2, The Sacrifice of Isaac; SE 3, Daniel in the Lions’ Den.  Head:  Center, Daniel in the Lions’ Den; SW Arm, Cain Slays Abel; NE Arm, (?) Joseph Interprets the Butler’s Dream

South-west Side:  None

North-west Face:  NW 1, The Adoration of the Magi; NW 2, The Marriage Feast of Cana; NW 3, The Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes.  Head:  Center, The Crucifixion; Arms, The Thieves (each arm)

North-east Sde:  None

Clones Cross, County Monaghan, Northern Ireland, Northwest Face

Clones Cross, County Monaghan, Northern Ireland, Southeast Face



Photos:  Clones Cross, County Monaghan.

Left:  Southeast Face

Right:  Northwest Face







13.  Killary Cross:  6 Hebrew scripture images; 4 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 1, Adam and Eve Knowing Their Nakedness; E 2, Noah’s Ark; E 3, The Sacrifice of Isaac; E 4, Daniel in the Lions’ Den

South Side:  None

West Face:  Shaft:  W 1, The Annunciation to the Shepherds; W 2, The Baptism of Christ; W 3, The Adoration of the Magi; W 4, (?) The Marriage Feast of Cana

North Side:  Shaft:  N 1, (?) David with the Head of Goliath; N 3, (?) David

Killary Cross, County Meath, Ireland, West Face

Killary Cross, County Meath, Ireland, East Face


Photos:  Killary Cross, County Meath.

Left:  East Face

Right:  West Face







14.  Moone Cross:  4 Hebrew scripture images; 5 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 1, Daniel in the Lion Pit; E 2, The Sacrifice of Isaac; E 3, Adam and Eve.  Head:  Center, (?) The Risen Christ

South Side:  S 1, The Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes; S 2, The Flight into Egypt; S 3, The Three Children in the Fiery Furnace

West Face:  Base:  W 1, The Twelve Apostles; W 2, The Crucifixion

North Side:  None

Moone Cross, County Kildare, Ireland, West Face

Moone Cross, County Kildare, Ireland, East Face



Photos:  Moone Cross, County Kildare.

Left:  West Face

Right:  East Face








15.  Donaghmore Cross/Down:  7 Hebrew scripture images; 2 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 3, Moses Smites Water from the Rock; E 4 left, David with the Head of Goliath; E 4 right, David Slays the Lion.  Head:  Center, (?) The Last Judgment

South Side:  None

West Face:  Shaft:  W 1, Adam and Eve; W 2, Noah’s Ark; W 4, (?) The Sacrifice of Isaac.  Head:  Center, The Crucifixion

North Side:  Shaft:  N 2, (?) David Encounters/Smites Goliath

Photos below:  Donaghmore Cross, County Down; Left:  West Face; Right:  East Face. Images from Harbison, 1992, volume II, figures 182, 183, 189 and 190.













16.  Kells, Patrick and Columba Cross:  7 Hebrew scripture images; 2 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft:  E 2 left, Adam and Eve Knowing Their Nakedness; E 2 right, Cain Slays Abel; E 3, The Three Children in the Fiery Furnace; E 4, Daniel in the Lion’s Den.  Head:  South Arm, The Sacrifice of Isaac; Top, (?) David Plays Before Saul

South Side:  Head:  End of Arm, David Slays the Lion

West Face:  Shaft:  W 2, The Crucifixion.  Head:  Center, Majestas Domini

North Side:  Head:  End of Arm, (?) David Slays the Lion

Photos below:  Patrick and Columba Cross, Kells, County Meath.  Left:  West Face; Right:  East Face.

Patrick and Columba Cross, Kells, County Meath, Ireland, East Face

Patrick and Columba Cross, Kells, County Meath, Ireland, West Face













17.  Camus Cross:  4 Hebrew scripture images; 4 Christian scripture images

East Face:  Shaft; E 1, The Adoration of the Magi; E 2, The Baptism of Christ; E 3, The Marriage Feast of Cana; E 4, (?) The Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes.

South Side:  None

West Face:  W 1, Eve Gives the Apple to Adam; W 2, Cain Slays Abel; W 3 Noah’s Ark; W 4, The Sacrifice of Isaac.

North Side:  None

Photos below:  Camus Cross, County Derry.  Images from Harbison, 1992, volume II, figures 83-86.

Below upper:  West Face, North Side

Below Lower:  East Face, South Side

18.  Castledermot: North Cross:  5 Hebrew; 3 Christian

East Face:  Shaft; E 3, Three Apostles; Head; Center, The Crucifixion, Arms and Top, Three Apostles each, to accompany E 3.

South Side:  Base; Lower Panel, The Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes

West Face:  W 3, Daniel in the Lions’ Den; Head, Center, Eve Gives the Apple to Adam; North Arm, David Playing His Harp; South Arm, The Sacrifice of Isaac; Top, (?) The Judgment of Solomon

North Side:  None  

North Cross, Castledermot, County Kildare, Ireland, West Face

North Cross, Castledermot, County Kildare, Ireland, East Face



Photos:  North Cross, Castledermot, County Kildare.

Left:  East Face

Right:  West Face







19.  Killamery Cross:  3 Hebrew; 4 Christian 

East Face:  None

South Side:  End of Arm, Noah’s Ark

West Face:  Head, Below Center, God Blesses and Sanctifies the Seventh Day; Above Center, (?) Adam and Eve at Labour

North Side:  End of Arm, Top Left, (?) St. John the Baptist Embracing/Recognising Christ; Top Right, Salome Dances for the Head of John the Baptist; Bottom Left, The Naming of John the Baptist; Bottom Right, Zacharias and Elizabeth with the Infant John the Baptist

Killamery Cross, County Kilkenny, Ireland, West Face

Killamery Cross, County Kilkenny, Ireland, East Face



Photos:  Killamery Cross, County Kilkenny.

Left:  East Face

Right:  West Face






20.  Graiguenamanagh: North Cross:  4 Hebrew;  3 Christian 

East Face:  E 1, David as Harper, E 2, The Sacrifice of Isaac; E 3, (?) The Lord Reproves Adam or (?) Eve Gives the apple to Adam; Head; The Crucifixion

South Side:  None

West Face:  W 1, The Visitation; Head; Top, The Annunciation to Mary

North Side:  None

North Cross, Graiguenamanagh, County Kilkenny, East Face













Photos above:  Graiguenamanagh North Cross, County Kilkenny.  Left:  East Face; Right:  West Face and North Side.  Source of photo on right:   Harbison, 1992, volume II, figures 313, 314.

21.  Ullard Cross:  4 Hebrew; 3 Christian 

East Face:  Shaft; Six Apostles; Head; Lower Panel, (?) Eve Gives The Apple to Adam; Center, The Crucifixion; South Arm, David with His Harp; North Arm, The Sacrifice of Isaac; Upper Panel, (?) David Encounters/Smites Goliath

South Side  None

West Face:  None 

North Side:  None  

Ullard Cross, County Kilkenny, Ireland, West Face, North Side














Photos above:  Ullard Cross, County Kilkenny.  Left photo West Face and North Side.  Right photo taken from sign post at site shows the East Face.  

   

 Barney McLaughlin 2012